Express industry plays a very important role in the economic development of a country, and can also reflect the development level of a country's trade. Especially with the rise of e-commerce in recent years, we can intuitively feel the convenience brought to life by express delivery. After 40 years of development, Japan's express delivery industry has entered a mature period. The development trajectory of China's express industry has many similarities with that of Japan. The development experience of Japan's express industry has certain reference significance for the transformation and upgrading of China's express industry. Frequent international trade further promotes the rapid development of the express industry between China and Japan.
Reviewing the development stage of Japanese express market, it can be divided into birth period, development period and stable growth period. At present, there are 21 domestic express delivery enterprises in Japan, with 11,000 direct outlets nationwide, and all cities above the county level have been covered. According to relevant data, the volume of express delivery business in Japan reached 4.2 billion in 2017. From the perspective of supply in the Japanese express market, the expansion of service network of express delivery enterprises and the improvement of service level brought about an increase in business volume. In 1975, yamato transportation company had a delivery network coverage of 3%, with 30,000 pieces of business. In 1982, the coverage rate exceeded 50%, and the business volume increased to 73 million pieces. In 1997, the coverage rate reached 100%, and the business volume reached 750 million pieces.
There are two main ways to expand the express network. One is to set up business outlets in various places, and the other is to sign franchise agreements with existing local logistics companies. In Japan, express delivery companies expand their service network mainly through direct sales. At present, although China is mainly engaged in franchising, logistics enterprises that adopt direct operation mode are rapidly occupying market share with good service level. In the fierce market competition, enterprises that have perfect operation network and information system and can make large-scale investment quickly occupy the advantageous position of the market, and the market begins to show the trend of monopoly centralization. With the expansion of enterprise scale, the improvement of business volume, the utilization rate of operation network and professional equipment increases, the logistics cost of individual goods decreases, thus forming the advantage of scale economy.
From the perspective of the demand of Japanese express market, the use of express starts from the field of C toC. Japan has the custom of giving gifts and red envelopes during the hungry ghost festival and at the end of the year. Gifts are given with the intention of the giver, so they should not be debased during delivery. Consumers have put forward high requirements for the convenience and timeliness of express service. In order to improve their competitiveness in the market, Japanese express enterprises have made great efforts to optimize the fast and convenient delivery and service skills training of couriers. At the same time, in order to meet the personalized needs of consumers, some differentiated service products are also developed.
In the field of BtoB, as enterprise logistics becomes more frequent and less quantified, express delivery becomes increasingly popular. At first, it was documents and important parts. Then samples of goods, electronic products and other small value-added goods began to be sent by express delivery. Compared with other logistics methods, express delivery has the advantages of higher frequency and shorter delivery time, and is more suitable for goods with high freight burden. In the 1980s, with the diversification of distribution channels such as newspapers, magazines, radio, television and Internet, express delivery has been widely used in BtoC fields such as direct delivery of origin and mail order. In recent years, with the boom of e-commerce, the volume of express delivery services has soared, with an increase of about 600 million in the last five years.
Besides consumer supervision, administrative supervision by the government is also a factor that promotes the improvement of express delivery service. The government will introduce relevant regulations to restrain the unqualified business behaviors, so as to ensure the continuous improvement of the service level of the express industry. In 1984, Japan promulgated the "standard delivery contract", which made relevant provisions on delivery time, compensation for damages, cargo restrictions and other aspects. In addition, when the existing system cannot meet the current development situation of express industry, the government will relax the administrative control. For example, the act on motor vehicle transport of goods removes the restriction of business division and the act on motor transport of goods liberalizes combined transport services, all of which have created conditions for the further expansion of the service network.
Japan's postal system faces huge challenges as the country's population ages, declines in size, and structural problems such as the government's fiscal crisis. In 2005, Japan passed the postal privatization reform bill. The promotion of postal privatization has brought new development opportunities to the express industry.
In recent years, with the rapid economic growth, China's express delivery industry has also ushered in good development opportunities. From 2011 to 2017, express delivery volume increased from 3.7 billion pieces to 40.1 billion pieces, ranking first in the world for four consecutive years. Among China's express delivery companies, only two state-owned enterprises, China postal express and logistics co., and China railway express co., had nationwide service networks. For private enterprises, the establishment of new service network will generate huge costs, and it is not easy to participate in market competition. Most private enterprises only carry out distribution business in specific cities. They do not directly face consumers, but receive business commissions from the headquarters of the franchise as a franchise. However, the state monopoly has led to low service standards, and private enterprises seize this opportunity to compete with it.
Express enterprises, postal EMS, jingdong logistics and sf express use direct mode, and known as "four one to reach" shentong, yantong, zhitong, huitong and yunda five enterprises are used to join the way, small logistics companies around the signing of the joining agreement, you can use their brand to develop express business. In recent years, with the rapid development of China's domestic economy, the people's way of life has also undergone great changes. One of the most striking is the change in the way shopping works. The vigorous development of e-commerce has become an important driving force for the express delivery industry. In 2017, about 68 percent of express delivery business came from e-commerce, and e-commerce orders accounted for more than 80 percent of the business of major private express companies.
For express delivery enterprises, the profit of one piece of e-commerce goods is less than that of ordinary goods, but due to the reason of scale delivery, the cost related to the collection of goods is greatly reduced. As price competition intensifies and free distribution becomes the mainstream, it is very important to ensure the quantity of goods in order to squeeze out profits. This also further promotes the development trend of express delivery market centralization. With the rapid development of express delivery industry, many problems have surfaced. As far as consumer complaints are concerned, they mainly focus on delivery service, delay and loss. The main reasons are as follows: the professional quality of express delivery workers is uneven, and the staff training mechanism is not perfect. Competition within the industry is fierce, the vicious cycle of low prices is serious, and the management of small and medium-sized enterprises is extensive.
In the process of the development of Japan's express delivery market, although strict regulation has hindered the expansion of business innovation and service network to some extent, it has also played a significant positive role in protecting the legitimate rights and interests of consumers. For China, which is developing rapidly, it is of great significance to establish a sound regulatory mechanism to ensure reasonable competition in the express delivery market and improve the service level.
The promulgation of the postal law of the People's Republic of China stipulates the access conditions of express delivery market in terms of registered capital and business license. The measures for the administration of express delivery market and the guidelines for the operation of express delivery business further explain the links such as "receiving, Posting, sorting, transportation and delivery". The formulation of legal system is of great significance to ensure the healthy development of express delivery industry. However, as far as the development of China's express delivery market is concerned, many small and medium-sized private enterprises are trapped in vicious price competition and lack of service awareness, and do not conduct business operations in accordance with the standard terms.
To sum up, the first part of this paper analyzes the development mode of Japan's express industry, expounds the development characteristics of China's express industry, and summarizes the supervision systems of the two countries' express industry. China's express delivery industry and Japan's express delivery industry have many similarities, but also have many different characteristics.
On the supply level, only 21 domestic express delivery business, express delivery business mainly concentrated in the yamato transport, sagawa JiBian, Japan post three express enterprises, these Courier companies have advanced equipment and complete service network, has formed the scale economy effect, it's for the enterprise to carry on the standardized management, set up service standards, provides support to improve operation efficiency. However, in China, the entry threshold of express delivery market is low, with a large number of private express companies and uneven service level. The express industry should further improve its concentration through mergers and reorganizations, and reduce operating costs and improve service capacity through resource sharing and mutual benefit. On the other hand, Japanese express enterprises mostly adopt direct operation mode and build their own operation network, so they can optimize internal management, effectively control the whole network system, improve efficiency and reduce operating costs. At present, most of our country is the way of joining, only a few adopt direct management, there are many problems in the management, so we need to further optimize the operation of the enterprise, strengthen the management, assessment of the franchise, improve the level of enterprise management.
From the demand level, in Japan, various express enterprises will be the further subdivided market, in the ordinary mail business, international business, have different focuses on aspects such as comprehensive logistics business, provide diversification, human nature, delivery of services in the high quality products, to avoid the vicious price competition, safeguard the healthy and orderly development of the market. On the contrary, thousands of express delivery companies in China provide standard express services, engage in homogenized competition and price wars, and disrupt the normal market order. China's express industry needs to further tap the potential market demand, expand the service dimension and standardize the service process, so as to realize the transformation to high-end express enterprises.
From the perspective of supervision and management, the systems of Japan and China have played a good role in guaranteeing the development of express industry. The next step is to further implement relevant laws and regulations to improve the legalization and standardization of express delivery industry. At the same time, central and local policies should be brought into full play to create a favorable environment for the development of express delivery industry.
At present, with the rapid development of China's economy, the 13th five-year plan for the development of postal service issued by the state post office of China has clearly defined the target of completing the construction of a moderately prosperous society by 2020. With the further expansion of China's domestic and international trade, China's express industry will continue to develop in a healthy and scientific way.