Britain is the birthplace of modern nursing. Nightingale was born in Britain. British society generally respects and recognizes nurses. Imperial college London was founded in 1907, specializing in the teaching and research of medicine, science and technology and business. It is one of the most difficult universities in the UK, enjoying a high reputation in the UK. Early July 2017 the author attended to China communist youth league central China guanghua science and technology fund management projects, at imperial college in London to nursing management and health training course of a week of short-term training, during the visit of st. Mary's hospital, charing cross hospital and brooke green community health center hospitals, such as benefit, harvest a lot. Through training and investigation, the author of the status quo of the medical and health care system, nursing status and role, nursing education and continuing education, nursing practice environment, improve nursing quality management has a profound understanding of, the humanized service concept, good professional environment and advanced management experience, is worth learning and using for reference.
The main body of the system is the national health service, which is free for all, supplemented by private hospitals with high treatment costs, and private medical services in the public hospitals of the NHS. The NHS is the most important universal health care system in the British medical system. It was founded in 1948 and is one of the most important parts of the British social welfare system. The NHS system plays a very positive role in improving the health status of British people and is widely welcomed by the society. Britain's national health service is funded through taxation, providing free health services to all citizens based on the needs of patients rather than on their ability to pay.
The NHS adopts the hierarchical health care system: primary health care is called primary health care, which is the main body of the NHS. Everyone who has income is the target of the primary care team. The PCG is the basic unit that provides health care. A typical PCG provides about 10,000 person-to-person services. Secondary care is provided by hospital trusts, which work independently within the statutory and policy framework of the NHS and are overseen by the NHS executive board. The medical and health system in Britain is a mode of planned adjustment. Community health services are planned and managed by the national health administration department, forming a perfect community health service network. All citizens can enjoy comprehensive health services including general medical treatment, prevention, rehabilitation, health care and community services.
As the cradle of nursing education, Britain has been committed to the development and improvement of nursing education. Nursing has become a truly independent discipline in the UK. The NHS trust system has a good training system for nursing students and nurses. General medical students graduate from high school after the entrance examination, the school system is divided into three years, four years two kinds, after the above degree registration can become a national regular registered nurse. The grade of nurses a-h, gradually increased. After 2 years of regular graduation work, I obtained the required continuing education credits and got the direct D grade, engaged in outpatient triage, venipipture and injection therapy. There is also a class without school training, directly from the non-professional staff to the hospital, through clinical short-term training on the post, nursing staff. After 1 ~ 2 years of work, I passed the examination and graduated from A to B, mainly engaged in basic care of patients, assisting patients who could not take care of themselves in life, accompanying patients to go out for examination, etc. EF above is equivalent to the head nurse, engaged in supervision, guidance work. H is equivalent to deputy director and chief nurse, engaged in nursing management and training of nurses and head nurses. Domestic and foreign nursing consultation, nursing expert outpatient service. Each level of division of labor requirements are very clear, legal protection. As in China, nurses at all levels have detailed refresher training plans and are required to attend various continuing education classes on a regular basis. The assessment of nurses in Britain is mainly based on clinical skills assessment, which is conducive to the improvement of nurses' clinical practice skills as well as the updating of new technologies and new knowledge.
Community nursing in the UK has been well developed. There are district nurses, occupational health nurses, learning disabilities nurses, family health nurses, community mental health nurses, health visitors, community children nurses, general practice nurses, school nurses and so on. And gradually in the development of senior and specialist nurse, some professional areas of senior nurse and specialist nurse prescription right has been recognized by the law. At the present stage, most of the community nursing work in China continues the basic nursing of general hospitals, but community nurses are no longer the traditional disease nurses, but the integration of educators, consultants, managers and other roles. China's community nursing started late, there are deficiencies in government funding, management mechanism, nursing manpower allocation and other aspects, there is still a lot of room for learning and progress, there are still problems and deficiencies in the development. We will carry out and promote a variety of community care services, and improve the pricing system of community care services in accordance with policies. Carry out various forms of services, such as home visits, family care, community health education activities, lectures on chronic disease care, physical examination, etc. Improve the community nursing service system, make community nursing become an important part of community health service. Make our community nursing work more convenient, fast, better for the people's health service.
Occupational health and infection control of hospital staff is also one of the important tasks of nursing. Britain has a good occupational environment, harmonious nurse-patient relationship and high social recognition. Nurse-patient relationship, friendly, patient, responsible, to patients to do their best to provide services. Occupational health concerns include staff to take care of, restore jobs guidance, the hospital managers pay attention to psychological problems, they think that 70% people associated with mental illness, they were concerned about the worker's health, undertake to the worker regularly hearing, vision, lung, alcohol, drugs, testing, distribution of health report, at the same time try to work for high strength relief. Just like our country, the UK also pays great attention to hand hygiene in the prevention and control of nosocomial infection, and agrees that maintaining hand hygiene is the simplest, most effective and most economical method to reduce nosocomial infection. Therefore, the monitoring of hand hygiene implementation rate and compliance is also an important part.
Throughout the development history of the NHS for more than 60 years, there are also some structural problems in the NHS, such as rigid system, efficiency needs to be improved, adverse incentives for hospitals, excessive concentration of administrative power, leading by the medical supplier, imperfect accountability mechanism and long waiting time for customers. Therefore, the NHS has also carried out a series of reforms in terms of health organization structure, service delivery mode and service management to provide economical, convenient and high-quality health services. They linked administrative records from hospital incidents between 2003 and 2012 to immigration data from the British Labour survey and found that immigration reduced waiting times for outpatient referrals and had no significant impact on waiting times for accident and emergency departments and selective care. Reduced outpatient waiting times can be explained by the fact that migrants increase internal mobility and tend to be healthier than those who move to different areas. In addition, the UK hospital administration's assessment of reform measures is not only economic, quality and safety, which is a small improvement. Nursing to develop a series of quality improvement project research, such as "right nurse, right skill" nurse training and safety case report activities; Introducing artificial intelligence and data systems; Nurse qualification training and management, education and practice standard setting, etc.
The NHS medical system in Britain can be used for reference in China's medical reform. However, China is faced with a series of complex problems such as large population and shortage of funds, which cannot be copied from foreign experience. Therefore, it is necessary to cross the river by feeling the stones to realize the medical and health undertakings of the whole country. Nursing management personnel to adapt to the new situation, establish forward-looking management thinking, improve the level of nursing management. Facing the general trend of international nursing development and many favorable policies of the government, nursing management should move from basic management to service-oriented management and talent cultivation management. For nursing managers, they need to learn from the UK to develop and improve the nursing discipline step by step. Pragmatic quality improvement and pursuit, international cooperation vision, training of young people with higher education. Create conditions for the growth of nursing staff, further innovate the talent training mechanism, conduct precise training, precise positioning and accurate evaluation of expert talents, technical talents and compound talents, and cultivate an important force in the medical care career in the new era.