留学生thesis Research Methods范文
MSc International Hospitality Management & Leadership
Research Methods 研究方法
In this report the author compares two research papers on similar topic, one is quantitative study another is qualitative study. Quantitative and qualitative research methods are two important research methods in the process of the unit study (Trinchero, 2014). Nowadays no matter in restaurant industry or hospitality industry, the significant way to increase competitive and organizational effectiveness is to improve service quality. Moreover, employee is the essential factor in the process of improving service quality.
The quantitative paper investigates the effect of the two main factors that impact on service quality which are job satisfaction and empowerment of employees within a restaurant context. While the qualitative paper study the understanding of an employee’s need to serve. Both of this two paper study about employee in hospitality in two research methods. Therefore, in this report, the author which research method is better to answer research questions.
1. Research Design 研究设计
1.1 Quantitative paper
According to some previous literature on empowerment and service quality, researchers agreed that empowerment is the psychological state of a subordinate while other studies also found that there is certain relationship between empowerment and job satisfaction. In terms of “Cycle of Success” model proposed by Schlesinger & Heskett (1991) found the relationship between job satisfaction and service quality. SERVQUAL is the abbreviation of service quality, was first proposed in 1988 by A.Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry. It is a model to evaluate of service quality (Naik et al.,2010). The paper has dedicated the relationship among the Empowerment, job satisfaction, and customer’s perception of service quality through the three hypotheses, they are:
Hypothesis 1: Empowerment will have a direct and positive effect on job satisfaction.
Hypothesis 2a: Empowerment will have a direct and positive effect on customers’ perception of service quality.
Hypothesis 2b: Empowerment will have an indirect and positive effect on customers’ perception of service quality through job satisfaction.
Hypothesis 3: Job satisfaction will have a direct and positive effect on customers’ perceived service quality.
In the hypothesis, “direct” and “positive” are two different consequences in the hypothesis, so that these two words should be separated in two questions such as hypothesis 1: Empowerment will have a direct effect on job satisfaction; hypothesis 2: Empowerment will have a positive effect on job satisfaction (Polat, 2015). As a consequence, hypothesis is quite clear to solve the questions in the research paper.
1.2 Qualitative paper
This paper analysis many previous literature about service which has two different meanings, service orientation and service climate. But this paper find out that service orientation is the significant factor of service delivery and influence service quality. Therefore, the qualitative paper would like to investigate the questions as follow:
RQ1. How is the need to serve understood (conceived) by the service provider?
RQ2. How is the need to serve developed within the service provider?
RQ3. Is there support for a unique personality trait related to one’s need to serve?
For these three questions stated above, these three questions are open questions which are not directly related to topic which the paper is planned to solve out. The goal of the paper is designed to research on the factors impacted on the guests’ perceptions or satisfaction of the hospital industry. However, the designed questions are not directly to the central of the “factors”, so that the questions are not direct on posted questions.
2. Measurement Issues 计量问题
2.1 Critical Evaluations of Measurement Issues
2.1.1 Quantitative paper
In the quantitative paper, the author has designed model called the SEM which was used in verifying cause and effect relationships among job satisfaction, empowerment, and perceived service quality. In addition, the SPSS15.0 is also applied in the research for the result output.
In the measurement issue of the quantitative paper, all output is relied on the output of the SPSS, is linked to the skill of the SPSS if first hand data is correct. Also, much data should be collected by the manager and employees, the original data could be filled in by themselves on the purpose of themselves (Crawford, 2013). As a consequence, the skill of SPSS and the correction on the original data could be two issues.
2.1.2 Qualitative paper
In the qualitative paper, interpretive phenomenological approach (IPA) is applied. This means that a phenomenon, as it relates to the life experiences of participants detailed examination. It stressed that the exercise of this research is a dynamic process, in this process, the researchers active role (Reale, 2014). Besides that the interview method is still used in the Qualitative paper.
The measurement of qualitative paper is related to the interview conducted by him and also related to his experience. The issue could be mixed with his personal view on the research, so that the research could be not objective. In addition, all theories are also based on his knowledge and study, so result could be contain personal view and experience on the research. As a consequence, the result is only stand for his personal view on the industry.
2.2 Authors’ evaluations of reliability, authenticity and validity
2.2.1 Quantitative paper
Three constructs – empowerment, job satisfaction, and perceived service quality and all measure the three dimensions for the reliability and validity is analyzed. In addition, the result of the SPSS is told the reader reliability, authenticity and validity (OSLER & MANSARAY, 2014). Reliability and validity are all based on the output figures.
2.2.2 Qualitative paper
First hand data is collected by the method of interview. It is still the responsibility of the researcher to ensure reliability and validity in the study. In this study, reflexivity and transferability are employed in the research. Reflexivity refers to the background, the attitude to participate in the system construction of knowledge, especially for the researchers, the influence of every step of the research process. Transferability is refers to the results of the application scope and limitation, made “beyond the research background. The two key technologies can be used in qualitative research, including using a sampling strategy and related materials contain context, so that we can determine under what conditions/set found is true (Cakmak, et al., 2015).
3. Evaluation of Data Collection 数据采集评估
3.1 Quantitative paper
The data were collected during 2 weeks in the month of June 2007. In addition, the data is collected though the surveys of 14 restaurant of the United States. However, sample sizes are large; all are depending on the managers and employees to collect the first hand data, so that the reliable of the data is an issue (Ažman & Gomišček, 2015). Whether the result of the survey is real reflection of the employees and customers, this is also an issue. In addition, the surveys are only conducted within the restaurants industry, which is limited for the research for whole service industry.
3.2 Qualitative paper
Semi-structured interviews are used in the research. In addition, A total of 11 has carried on the interview. Interviewed about an hour to finish for most participants are as the interview record their voices. After all interviews are after the completion of their transcription data analysis. The interview is limited for the research that the interview could contain the personal view on the service quality and output.
4. Assessment on Sampling 抽样评估
4.1 Quantitative paper
There are 8295 customers and 553 services employees in the survey. In addition, in total, the restaurants returned 474 employees’ surveys and 1,289 customer’s questionnaires representing an employee response rate of 85.7% and customer response rate of 15.5%. In addition, the responsible rates of the customers are quite low in the survey. However, these first hand data is all collected by the employees and managers of the restaurant. In order to identify the influence of empowerment and job satisfaction on customers’ perception of service quality, this research surveyed 474 restaurant employees and 1,259 customers. Different from other previous studies, this research studied both employees’ and customers’ perspectives as its research design. In addition, while many previous studies prefer use SERVQUAL model on service quality, this research conceptualized services quality in terms of hierarchical approach model. As a consequence, the response rate is pretty lower in the design the model in the purpose.
Though sample size is large, sample is only based on one series of restaurant in the US; these figures are not standing for the whole industry.
4.2 Qualitative paper
A total of 11 interviews were conducted. In addition, sample size is limited which is only 11 in the research. The reason is that 11 are not standing for the whole industry. Therefore, the sample size is too small.
This paper analysis many previous literature about service which has two different meanings, service orientation and service climate. But this paper find out that service orientation is the significant factor of service delivery and influence service quality.
Therefore, for the purpose of the research, sample size of the 11 is not enough to prove the factors which can be influenced over the service quality in the hospitality industry.
5. Ethical Issues 伦理争议
5.1 Quantitative paper
In collection of data, the data rely on the managers and employees to execute the data collection stage. In addition, employees know advance to test them under the working condition, so that they would like to change the working attitude. Furthermore, the research is only designed for one restaurants sector.
5.2 Qualitative paper
Ethics issues are related to Concentrated in one location, and focus on a particular part of the hotel industry, rather than from all industrial fields (Panda & Das, 2014). This study focused on the southeastern United States and no geographical areas. In the future research, a comparative analysis of consumer’s perceptions of service and provider’s perceptions of service is necessary.
6. Analysis of Data 数据分析
6.1 Quantitative paper
Descriptive statistics and reliability analysis using SPSS 15.0 were analyzed. Use descriptive statistics to disclose the characteristics of employees and customers. In the study of variables was analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) by AMOS 7.0. The relationship between the power, the relationship between job satisfaction and perceived service quality inspection using scanning electron microscopy (sem), estimated the relationship between the latent variables and indicators also decided the validity and reliability of the measures (Kaura, et al., 2015). The research is deeply relied on the software output; so that the result is depend on the performance of the software.
The quality of the data should be reliable and trust over the date collection. In the process of the data collection, all data is lack of the monitor over the process so that the data is not be trust based on the data reliable. The reason is that all data is collected by the employees and managers. If the original data is not worth to trust, the data analysis is not worth to trust in the procedure of the data analysis.
Besides that, the data analysis is critical to the data output. The correction of software is important to the data output.
6.2 Qualitative paper
Using two independent programmers for qualitative analysis, according to the explanation method, two basic questions asked the programmer, because they each analysis data. The problem is how to service conception and how to develop the individual. Interpretation of these questions is “workers and work to form an entity through the work” life experience (Harrington, et al., 2014). Specific to this study, the provider (employees) and provide (services) shall not be regarded as two independent entity, but as one of the service delivery through the life experience. Therefore, the design of the questions is relied on the author’s personal experience and knowledge on the specific industry. Therefore, the questions could not cover the whole aspect of the industry on the services.
The goal of the paper is designed to research on the factors impacted on the guests’ perceptions or satisfaction of the hospital industry. In the data analysis of the data of the interview, the answer to the interview should be summarized over the process of interview. In addition, all interviews are recorder over the recorder. In the process of the data analysis, the subjective of the author could influence the actual outcome of the interview. Also, the quality of the recorder could give an impact on the data analysis. As a consequence of the data analysis, the outcome of data analysis could not be trusted.
7. Synthesized View 综合视点
7.1 Quantitative paper
In the quantitative paper, the original data was collected by the managers and employees, the reliability on the data could not be trusted, because the data could be change and filled in by the employees and managers on the performance of the restaurant; and also the result is fully relied on the performance of the SPSS on the analysis of the data, so that the skill of the SPSS is important for the result of the research (Zwaal & Otting, 2015). In the paper, the original data could not be found in the paper, so that the output could not be tested for the purpose of the evaluation. In addition, in the ethic respective, the author is only selected one restaurant sector for the whole service industry, so that the result is only standing for the whole industry.
7.2 Qualitative paper
In the qualitative paper, the author’s view and experience could influence the result of the research, so that the result could not be objective in the research. In addition, sample size is limited in the interview, so that the contents of the interview could be not full, which is only part view of the whole industry. Besides that, the designs of the questions are not full picture of the whole industry. Furthermore, the theory could out of the date, so that they could not help on the current hospitality industry (Guillet, & Mohammed, 2015).
7.3 Comparison between the Quantitative paper and Qualitative paper
The quantitative is based on the surveys on the specific goal on the model and data; the qualitative is based on the personal view and experience and theories to test the result of analysis. In common, these two methods are both based on the data which author collects from the survey or interview. In addition, quality of the data could influence the quality of the research. As a consequence, these corrections of the original data are important for the research.
In conclusion, the quantitative is based on the surveys on the specific goal on the model and data; the qualitative is based on the personal view and experience and theories to test the result of analysis. In addition, the limitation on the quantitative paper is depending on the quality of the data and also the software of the data analysis. Besides that, one sector could not stand for the whole industry. In the respective of the qualitative paper, the author’s experience and knowledge could reflect the result of the research on the topic and also sample size is limited.
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