发布时间:2019-10-19 16:46
England from 1984 started to develop computer-based interlocking system, at present, as the core railway transportation safety control system, replacing the original 6502 Electric, but with the large-scale development of computer interlocking system also exposed more and more problem. Since many computer-based interlocking system retains nearly 30% of the relay circuit, complex structure, large area, multi-wire, solder joints, this causes high failure rate, anti-interference ability is weak, while interlocking software out of the intellectual property protection considerations, is completely closed, for interlocking software correctness, security, not in-depth control. Software testing is only limited to functional testing, black box testing, the test can not be exhaustive range of functions.   The development of a computer-based interlocking requirements and development   1.1 Computer Interlocking development requirements To ensure that rail transport leaps and bounds, give full play to the railway signal factories, engineering units, specialized construction units, electrical service maintenance units role in ensuring the basic security conditions, based on the computer-based interlocking system allows multi-level units become widely participate to achieve an open interlock devices. Computer interlocking system of the ideal state is: ① complete factory production; ② completely standardized design; ③ most simplified construction site; ④ most simplified acceptance mode; ⑤ most simplified maintenance approach; ⑥ most simplified maintenance tools; ⑦ easiest secondary development that free secondary development; ⑧ complete device parameter monitoring function; ⑨ meet the railway traffic automation interface functions.   1.2 Computer Interlocking direction of development         1.2.1 Take two squares two systems UK's current computer interlocking system are: hot standby, two out of three and two by two to take two systems. Hot Standby system problem exists Dual switch, switch failure would have serious consequences for the risk; shielded redundant technology to take two of the three systems, although the possibility of dangerous output is extremely small, but there can not be downtime problems; therefore This year the main technological transformation and new railway lines have given priority to take two squares two systems, two by two computer interlocking system is also taking future trends.     1.2.2 Fully electronic As manufacturing technology continues to improve, the electronic unit to get the vigorous development of electronic unit with a small, powerful features; facilitate networking, remote management and remote diagnostics. Thus, with the Ministry of Science and continues to progress, to get rid of the relay, using fully electronic computer interlocking will be a trend.     1.2.3 Modular For ease of use and maintenance of computer interlocking should move towards modular, functional direction to achieve the module line replacement, saving the system maintenance time.   2 full electronic modular computer interlocking system features and functions     2.1 Fully electronic interlocking modular computer system with the characteristics     2.1.1 hardware configuration Fully electronic interlocking modular computer system using industrial control technology, the abolition of all 6502 relay module is in direct control of the outdoor unit switch machines, signals machines, track circuits, in a clear, comprehensive fault diagnosis and fault indication and all modules support hot-swappable capabilities, cabinet wiring with plug-in cable directly correspond noseplate will minimize the amount of construction, the use of direct replacement module, the first maintenance after analyzing ways to achieve "fool" the construction and maintenance.     2.1.2 Software constitutes Interlocking Software should break the current computer interlocking system interlock seclusion other barriers to achieve an open source code level, and its "messaging" and "module assembled" interlocking ideas and original 6502 15 network cable and Puzzles designed in a way similar to the implementation of modular, trained technical personnel should be able to cope with any new station interlocking software design and debugging, testing to ensure early detection can minimize and resolve software in a variety of potential security risks, computer-aided design system refers to the user input station plan and set the necessary parameters, you can automatically generate interlock programs and data to minimize human error.     2.2 Full computer interlocking system should have the function 2.2.1 achieve the basic functions and special interlock interlock function Achieve progress on the road turnout, signal and track circuit interlock properly to ensure correct and train running into the road safety, to meet all of the interlock function 6502, the main features include: ① handle all stations train route, shunting into the road and roundabout approach. Equipment failure can be handled in the boot and boot into the path of total lockdown. ② The end is always handled two ways. Shunting into the road at once handled by a few basic approach consisting grow way, can also be handled by one segment. ③ signals belonging to the hostile approach, can not open. Only checked into the path of all track sections idle, all the relevant switch position is correct and has been locked in position, according to investigate and correct the hostile relations, the signal to open. ④ having a signal normally closed function, special off function to prevent automatic repeat function open signals and artificial repeat open feature. ⑤ with approach automatically unlock, halfway back to unlock, unlock cancellation approach, labor and trouble unlocking unlock approach into the road. ⑥ having separate operation functions turnout. According to the special requirements of stations to achieve special interlocking relationships, such as: single hook slide release function, stock Road middle Chucha feature non shunting into the road, continuing into the road, local control station or turnouts and clinical linkages interval occlusion.     2.2.2 The flexible system configuration function Fully electronic interlocking modular computer system using three-layer structure, the upper PC, Could it be an opportunity, then layer; upper layer via a communication network and the second interlocking machine communication; third layer is 10 module execution units. According selection of different composition interlocking machine can achieve hot standby interlock fault tolerant computer or three takes two interlocking squares two computers or take two interlocking computer systems.     2.2.3 Monitoring Function System without adding any other device, to achieve the indoor and outdoor equipment, the basic parameters and status monitoring.     2.2.4 History graphic reproduction function System has a complete record function, can store a year's information, which includes: driving job handling information, station graphics (signals, turnouts, track sections and other field device status) information, reflecting the system runs a variety of data . Adjustable recording system for any period of time all the data for playback to reproduce the real situation of the system at that time, as the cause of the accident analysis provide a convenient tool.     2.2.5 improve self-diagnostic function System through the readback, software and other technology to achieve the dual coding failure to board-level self-diagnosis.     2.2.6 maintenance and remote diagnostics System capable of recording all operations and signaling equipment status; monitoring and reporting system failures; easily query a variety of information stored in the memory; storage and print records; through the network system  failure can notify to the remote maintenance department, the maintenance department may need to dispatch technicians to repair the corresponding remote diagnostics.     2.2.7 Implementation and other information systems binding function The system has the oversight and scheduling, dispatching centralized systems such as communication. To achieve information sharing between stations.     2.2.8 weakening function with fault System interlocking machine either hot standby, take two or three squares two take two, the input and output layer IO modules are used within "two to take two" to protect the "fail safe backward", that is, each module has two sets of circuits. Interlocking system of partial failure does not affect the safe operation of equipment in the case of systems with fault weakening function. 3 Conclusion Full computer control of railway signal interlocking system is a new generation of interlock devices, systems to computer control technology as the core, power electronic switching technology based on the use of electronic means, the use of computer communications, automatic detection and other advanced technologies, to achieve full electronic control computer of the railway signal interlocking equipment, small, powerful, easy networking, for railway automation, information technology to provide basic information, remote management and remote diagnostics, railway signaling professional development.   英国从1984年开始发展,目前计算机联锁系统为核心的铁路运输安全控制系统,取代了原有的6502电气集中,但与计算机联锁系统的大规模发展也暴露出越来越多的问题。由于许多计算机联锁系统保留近30%的继电器电路,结构复杂,大面积,多线,焊点,这将导致高故障率,抗干扰能力弱,而联锁软件知识产权保护的考虑,是完全封闭的,联锁系统软件的正确性,安全性,不深入控制。软件测试仅限于功能测试,黑箱测试,测试不能详尽的功能范围。   一种基于计算机的联锁要求与发展的发展   1.1计算机联锁的发展要求 为了确保铁路运输跨越式发展,充分发挥铁路信号工厂,工程单位,专业施工单位,电器维修保养单位的作用,在保证基本的安全条件,计算机联锁系统的基础上,允许多级单位得到越来越广泛的参与来实现一个开放的联锁装置。计算机联锁系统的理想状态是:①完整的工厂生产;②完全标准化设计;③最简化的施工现场;④最简化的接受模式;⑤最简化的维护方法;⑥最简化的维修工具;⑦最简单的二次开发,免费二级发展;⑧完整的设备参数监控功能;⑨满足铁路交通自动化接口功能。   1.2计算机联锁的发展方向     1.2.1两个正方形两个系统 英国目前的计算机联锁系统:双机热备,两三个,两个两个地采取两个系统。热备系统存在问题双开关,开关故障将有严重后果的风险;屏蔽冗余技术,需要两三个系统,虽然危险输出的可能性是非常小的,但不能停机问题,因此今年主要技术改造和新铁路线都优先考虑采取两个正方形两个系统,两个二计算机联锁系统也考虑未来的发展趋势。     1.2.2全电子化 随着制造技术的不断提高,电子设备蓬勃发展的电子装置具有体积小,功能强大的特点,便于联网,远程管理和远程诊断。因此,科技部将继续进步,摆脱继电器,采用完全电子化计算机联锁将是一个趋势。     1.2.3模块化 为了便于使用和维护计算机联锁应该朝着模块化,功能化方向发展,实现模块的在线更换,节省了系统维护时间。   2全电子模块化计算机联锁系统的特性和功能     2.1全电子模块化计算机联锁系统的特点     2.1.1硬件配置 全电子模块化计算机联锁系统采用工业控制技术,直接控制的室外机开关机,信号机,轨道电路,在一个清晰,全面的故障诊断和故障指示取消所有6502继电器模块,所有模块支持热插拔拔插功能,带插头的电缆直接对应分线盘柜接线将尽量减少施工量,采用直接更换模块,首次保养后,分析的方式来实现“傻瓜式”的建设和维护。     2.1.2软件构成 联锁软件应该打破目前计算机联锁系统的联锁隐居其他方面的障碍,以实现一个开放的源代码级的,其“消息”和“模块组装”环环相扣的想法和原来的6502 15网络电缆和实施类似的方式设计的拼图模块化的,训练有素的技术人员,应该能够应付任何新的车站联锁软件设计和调试,测试,以确保早期检测,可以最大限度地减少和解决软件中的各种潜在的安全风险,计算机辅助设计系统是指用户输入站计划设置必要的参数,就可以自动生成联锁程序和数据,以尽量减少人为错误。     2.2计算机联锁系统应具备的功能 2.2.1实现基本功能和特殊联锁联锁功能 取得进展的道路上开道岔,信号正确轨道电路互锁,以确保正确和列车运行进路安全,以满足所有的联锁功能6502,主要功能包括:①处理所有站的火车路线,调车进路,迂回的办法。进入总锁定的路径,可以处理设备故障,在开机和引导。 ②端始终处理两种方式。分流到一次处理的几个基本的方法,由生长方式的道路,也可以由一分部处理。 ③信号的属于敌对办法,不能打开。只有最好的到所有音轨部分闲置的路径,所有相关的开关位置是正确的,并已锁定位置,根据调查和纠正的敌对关系,信号打开。 ④具有信号常闭功能,特殊的功能,可以防止自动重复功能开启信号和人工重复打开的功能。 ⑤与方法自动解锁,中途回解锁,解锁注销的方法,劳动力和麻烦开锁解锁方法入路。 ⑥具有单独操作功能投票。 据站来实现特殊的环环相扣的关系,如:单钩溜放功能,股道中间出岔功能的非调车进路,继续成道路,当地控制站或道岔及临床联系,区间闭塞的特殊要求。     2.2.2灵活的系​​统配置功能 全电子模块化计算机联锁系统采用三层结构,上位PC机,它可以是一个机会,那么层通过通信网络和第二联锁机通信的上层,第三层是10个模块的执行单元。 根据选择不同成分的联锁机可以实现热备用联锁容错计算机或三取二的联锁广场两台电脑或采取两个联锁电脑系统。     2.2.3监控功能 不添加任何其他设备的情况下,实现在室内和室外设备的基本参数和状态监测系统。     2.2.4历史图形再现功能 系统具有完整的记录功能,可存储一年的信息,其中包括:驾驶作业处理信息,站图形信息(信号,道岔,轨道区段和其他现场设备状态),反映了系统运行的各种数据。任何一段时间可调录音系统的所有数据进行回放重现系统的实际情况,在那个时候,事故的原因分析提供了一个方便的工具。     2.2.5完善的自诊断功能 通过回读,软件和其他技术来实现双重编码故障板级自我诊断系统。     2.2.6维护和远程诊断 系统能够记录所有操作和信号设备状态监测和报告系统故障,方便地查询各种信息存储在内存中存储和打印记录,通过网络系统故障可以通知远程维护部门的维修部门需要派遣技术人员来修复相应的远程诊断。     2.2.7实施和其他信息系统绑定功能 该系统具有监督和调度,调度集中系统,如通信。站之间实现信息共享。     2.2.8具有故障弱化功能 系统联锁机可选择热备份,需要两个或三个正方形两个需要两个输入和输出层IO模块内使用的“采取两个”保护“故障安全落后”,那就是,每个模块都有两套电路。联锁系统局部故障不影响设备安全运行的情况下系统具有故障弱化功能。 3结论 全电脑控制铁路信号联锁系统的联锁装置,系统是新一代计算机控制技术为核心,以电力电子开关技术的基础上利用电子手段,利用计算机通讯,自动检测等先进技术,实现铁路信号联锁设备,体积小,功能强大,易于联网,铁路自动化,信息化技术,提供基本信息,远程管理和远程诊断,铁路信号专业发展的全电子控制的计算机。