文献综述--The Literature Review
Growing Economies And Markets Marketing Essay
Ever growing economies and markets are evident in modern era, and at the same instance they provide numerous numbers of challenges, opportunities, threats, and demands (Kotler and Pfoertsch, 2006). Growing technology, impact of other industries on fashion market, the presence and availability of the desired, and many more factors have compelled today’s individual to think in a way which is consistent with the trends in the society(Ford, 2005). In such scenarios it becomes highly complicated to analyse contemporary developments in fashion market which are influenced (up to a certain extent) from various factors. One of such variable is the ‘brand image’ (Solomon & Michael, 2009). Out of these numbers of factor, the variable quoted above might have a strong influence on individual’s perception regarding intangible and materialistic aspects of fashion market.
To analyze such differentiation in consumer’s perception of brand image is the basic motive of this study. For the purpose two important variables in picture have to be elaborated and understood in depth. First is the brand image and other being the consumer’s perception. In upcoming section a brief understanding of these concepts will be developed to create further opportunities for the research work.
文献综述--The Literature Review:
“A name, a sign, symbol or design or combination of them intended to identify the goods and services of either one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate the from the competitors” (Kotler, 1984, p442), similarly
“A dynamic interface between an organisation’s actions and customer’s interpretations, a cluster of functional and emotional values which promise a particular experience” (Schultz and de Chernatony, 2002, p105), and more precisely
“Politicians, pop stars, sport and entertainment identities” (Jevons 2005, p118).
Putting it in simple terms, a word of mouth, a trust on a friend, goodwill in the market, an old heritage, a skill and many more that have an influence on individual in some way can be referred as to a brand (Coleridge, 2005). In above definitions three things can be seen in common. One the creation of the brand from marketer’s point of view; second a set of individual’s perception; and third the overall process of interaction between individual’s and marketer’s. Essentially this paper will concentrate on these three variables and will try to establish a logical understanding of the three.
De Chaernatony and McDonald (2003, p22) explain in a similar manner that intangible benefits, heritage and loyalty that is associated with a tangible asset lead to a creation of a brand. It was 1980’s that this was in attention of the marketers that financial benefits that are registered in the accounts are indirectly related to the brand image of the company. They also list this brand value of top ten brands(companies) in which Coca Cola hits on the top with 69.6bn $ followed by Microsoft, IBM, and GE on second, third and fourth place (Interbrand, 2002, sighted by De Chaernatony and McDonald, 2003).
With this ideology marketers associate their strategies, efforts, and vision to create a company or a product or a service as a brand. In this process there are many important things that have to be considered carefully. Foremost is argued as the user or the buyer (De Chaernatony and McDonald, 2003). They argue that “while marketers talk about branding efforts they are undertaking, they should never lose the sight that the final form of the brand is the mental evaluation held by the purchaser” (De Chaernatony and McDonald, 2003, p24). Thus there is definitely some component of consumer’s perception involved in creating a brand image (Coleridge, 2005). Accordingly they give their own definition of brand as
“A successful brand in an identifiable product service person or place augmented in such a way that the buyer or user perceives relevant, unique added values which math their needs more closely. Furthermore its success results from being able to sustain these added values in the face of competition” De Chaernatony and McDonald, 2003, p25).
Before discussing the other components of the process such as characteristics, contents, model etc it will be worth while to understand the existence of the brand itself. In following section some historical roots of the branding process are discussed.
品牌的演变--Evolution of the brand
Historically brand was defined as“To make indelibly as a proof of ownership, a sign of quality, or for any other purpose which can differentiate the commodity from any other commodity” (Oxford English Dictionary sighted by De Chaernatony and McDonald, 2003p 33)
The history of brand, as argued by many author is associated with the evolution of trademarks (see Miller & Muir 2004, Olins, Wally 2003, and Gregory, James 2003). They script that branding is the process in space of time that has been advent since ancient era. Though the importance of such advantages that a brand gives were being realised with the existence of industrial revolution (Gregory, 2003). In the ancient time, for example Greek and Roman retailers used a unique picture to predict (to the consumers) the product that they sell (Jevons, 2005). These pictures were thus an indication to consumers in the market regarding availability of the needed goods. Probably this was on of the marketing strategies of retailer to build up a relation with a consumer and make them loyal towards them (Jevons, 2005). Gradually with the space of time and understanding the complexities of the consumer acts in the market these pictures formulated into symbols that predicted the seller himself (Schmidt and et al, 2002). Now these symbols were not only associated with he product but also with the seller directly (Schmidt and et al, 2002). This was termed as a “shorthand device” indicating capability of the seller of selling a particular product (Davies, 1992).
Evidence can be found as the impressing these unique symbols by craftsmen’s on the goods produced. Gradually these symbols took the form of “Trademarks” (McEnally and et al, 1999). It shall be notified here that brand as a separate identity is not being relished by the sellers or the manufacturers up till this era. Rather these symbols or logos or picture were being used for a purpose(McEnally and et al, 1999). According to De Chaernatony and McDonald in these settings the brand was a mean to predict the sign of ownership and was a differentiating device for variety of products.
As the market grew, more suppliers were in existence, more retailers were in existence, altogether more goods were in production. The production by the manufactures made a differentiation between the qualities of the products. Not only the quality but, also the functions of the products were differentiated (Olins & Wally 2003). The goods were homogeneous but differentiated. These factors started impacting the manufacturer-Retailer relation. Manufacturer’s production thus increased rapidly depending on stoking the produced rather supplying to the retailer directly. Here comes the concept and importance of the wholesalers (McEnally and et al, 1999). This was the era before 1900 and the concept of branding was not explicitly understood by the manufacturers. In this era the brand is referred as to a functional device (De Chaernatony and McDonald).
With the hit of industrial revolution in 19th century, the levels of consumer demand, rate of technological development, large scale production, and profitability growth increased to an extent that manufacturers became highly competitive in the market to survive (Olins & Wally 2003). With these developments the relevance of the wholesalers was reduced as the manufacturer established themselves as a separate identity in the market (LeBlanc & Turley, 1994. Protection of the investments was the concern of the manufacturers and thus patenting their existence became a prominent activity (LeBlanc & Turley,1994). It was 1960 where the earlier setting took place as a BRAND in the market. Now the brand was regarded as a symbolic device, a risk reducer, a shorthand device directly to the manufacture-consumer relation, a legal device, and a strategic device (De Chaernatony and McDonald, 2003).